or we can put 10 kN for one floor randomly? Column length is generally 3 times to their least lateral cross-sectional dimension. 4/ using Resaver (or an oldrim equivalent) clean your new save from step 3 and save it as something like "Cleaned ABMM" 5/ Install version 2.0+ and set it's load order position as noted in step 2 The variable Nv is the axial design load acting on the wall at the point of maximum shear. Your email address will not be published. (c) It keeps the building warm in cools in summer and winter. for professional structural design practice, there are some basic assumptions we use for structural loading calculations. Interestingly this article has the same errors as seen on another post from 2011, Seriously I just loved the explanation So, the self-weight will be around 4.51 kN per running meter. Brick Masonry vs Stone Masonry – Which is Better? This results in different ESAL factors for the two types of pavements. Difference Between 33, 43 and 53 Grade Cement, Difference Between Carpet Area and Built-up Area, Difference Between CPM and PERT/PERT Vs CPM, Difference Between Fat Lime and Hydraulic Lime, Difference Between Flexible Pavement and Rigid Pavement, Difference Between Footing and Foundation, Difference Between Lap Length and Development Length, Difference Between One Way Slab and Two Way Slab, Difference Between Plasticizer And Superplasticizer in Civil. The most effective method for designing structure is to use advanced structural design software like ETABS or STAAD Pro. Assume each (1m) meter of the beam has dimension, • Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³, • Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg, • Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg, • Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m. Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more ; Related Documents . Inner walls are also called as Partition walls. • To carry on the more tension and load, pre-stressed concrete beams are widely used nowadays in the foundation of bridges and other such humongous structures. These are used to transfer a load of superstructure to the foundation safely. Step 1. This method can be adopted for load calculations of Brick per running meter for any brick type using this technique. When this occurs, it is called composite action. For calculations total load on columns, Beam, Slab we must know about various load coming on the column. \n•The beam is called a wall plate or sill plate that carries the transmits and load it to the girders, columns, or walls. Therefore, More steel reinforcement is provided at the bottom compared to the top of the beam. I have dead load 90 kN working on contact surface 150mm x 300mm on floor slab. Above 30m the wind pressure may increases. Hey, I am Krunal Rajput. `showracemenu command and just select a custom race (gender doesnt matter) hit done. we know that the Self-weight of Concrete is around 2400 kg/m3, which is equivalent to 240 kN and the Self-weight of Steel is around 8000 kg/m3. "}},{"@type":"Question","name":"What Is Slab? Related Topics . 0% of live load is sustained. One common example involves steel beams supporting concrete floor slabs. Inner walls are also called as Partition walls. Shut down the game. • The function of columns is to transfer the load of the structure vertically downwards to transfer it to a foundation. These tools are reduced laborious and consuming method of manual calculations for structural design, this is highly recommended nowadays in the field. \n• Mainly columns, struts, and pedestals are used as compression members in buildings, bridges, supporting systems of tanks, factories, and many more such structures. We offer House construction in Bangalore Starting at Just Rs 1500/ sq ft onwards; One can use our advanced construction cost calculator tool below to calculate the approximate cost to build a house. House construction Cost Calculation Excel Sheet. A point loading on a flexible pavement is more localized. Open up ncm to lazy followers and hit races make sure your new race is in there, this is required. This method can be adopted for load calculations of Brick per running meter for any brick type using this technique. Slab Load Calculation = 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.53 kN. If you have been thinking about selling your property or house at some point in the near future, you’ll be ... With a period of time buildings' structural strength gets decreased or damages. In other words, a higher Ks value will absorb more pressure at the load application point. The author tested the case with very high rigidity of the slab elements, resulting in a nearly planar surface after the application of the load. 3. 3/ load the new savegame and wait for the MCM to clear the ABMM entry, then make another new save. Calculate loads from structure, surcharge, active & passive pressures, etc. Point on surface of concrete to nearest face of a bar ... Perimeter of concentrated load on slab at prescribed multiples of effective depth ... calculate distribution of loads on the edge beams. NITOMAK 1/4-Inch Shank Durable Carbide Tipped CNC Spoilboard Surfacing Router Bit Wood Routing Bits(3 Flute) for Craftsman Exquisite woodworking cutter, precise, smooth, no burr edges planer router bit. Method 4 Finite element analysis. Your email address will not be published. Apart from the wall performs the following functions also: (a) It encloses building areas into different compartments and provides privacy. Up to the height of 30m, the wind pressure is considered to act uniformly. He was a lecturer in a diploma engineering college for more than 3 years. Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 150 mm. These flat surfaces of slab utilized for making floors, roofs, and ceilings. (b) It provides safety from burglary and insects. Now, If we consider the Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. In structural engineering, composite construction exists when two different materials are bound together so strongly that they act together as a single unit from a structural point of view. So, the Self-weight of each square meter of the slab would be. The setup to calculate the phase shift is shown in the following figure. These tools are reduced laborious and consuming method of manual calculations for structural design, this is highly recommended nowadays in the field. • Mainly columns, struts, and pedestals are used as compression members in buildings, bridges, supporting systems of tanks, factories, and many more such structures. 500 kg/m 2 is typical for office, storage space and similar. "}},{"@type":"Question","name":"What is Wall? You can find him on Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and Google News. ","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"• A slab is constructed to provide flat surfaces, typically horizontal, in building roofs, floors, bridges, and other types of structures. It is a horizontal structural member whose size may vary depending upon the structure size and area and its thickness also may vary. House Construction Cost Calculator Excel Sheet For Ground Floor(G.F.), G.F.+1, G.F.+2, G.F.+3, Calculator for Cutting Length of Stirrups, IS 516:1959 Most Important Point (Method of Tests For Strength of Concrete), Different Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab. The Beam is a horizontal structural member in building construction, which is designed to carry shear force, bending moment, and transfer the load to columns on both ends of it. Slab Load Calculation: Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm. y represents the vertical elevation of point, e pvc refers to initial elevation, g 1 refers to initial grade, g 2 is the final grade, and. the "load line". The short answer is that you should use superimposed dead load to account for the weight of the non-structural and semi-permanent members. In the end, after calculating the entire load on a column, do not forget to add in the factor of safety, which is most important for any building design for the safe and convenient performance of the building during his design life duration. A typical 8-foot x 8-foot concrete slab costs $384, with a range between $320 and $448, while a larger 24-foot x 24-foot concrete slab costs $3,456, with a range between $2,880 and $4,032. While doing calculations, we assume the self weight of columns is between 10 to 15 kN per floor. The Man Behind CivilJungle. For aerated concrete blocks and autoclaved concrete blocks, like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter is between 550 to 700 kg per cubic meter. The load / running meter to be equal to 0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg. They impart privacy and protection against temperature, rain, and theft. What Is Pier Foundation | Types of Drilled Piers | Advantages and Disadvantages of Drilled Pier Foundations, What Is Plaster | Type of Plaster | Defects In Plastering, Introduction of Gantry Girder | Load on Gantry Gutter | Type of Load on Gantry Gutter, Difference Between Bitumen and Tar | What Is Bitumen | What Is Tar, How to Draw House Plan Step By Step | Standard Room Sizes, Introduction of USCS | USCS Classifies Soils into Two Broad Categories, 23 Different Types Cements Available in India and As Per IS Standards, 10 Best Steel Brand for House Construction in India. • Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 2.55 =0.459 m³, • Weight of Concrete = 0.459 x 2400 = 1101.60 kg, • Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete = 0.459 x 1% x 7850 = 36.03 kg, • Total Weight of Column = 1101.60 + 36.03 = 1137.63 kg = 11.12 KN. Generally, the wall is differentiated as two types of outer-wall and inner-wall. The slab is a level structural element of building which provided to create a flat hard surface. Read More: HOW TO CALCULATE STEEL QUANTITY FOR SLAB. Thanks for this article sir, Pingback: Construction Joints & Types Of Joint In Concrete, Pingback: 25+ Types Of Pile Foundations & Their Application - Civiconcepts, Pingback: Building Construction Step By Step Process - Civiconcepts, Download House Construction Cost Calculator App, 2019-2021 | Copyrights by Bhushan Mahajan | Disclaimer. ability of each type of pavement to distribute a point loading. Slab Load Calculation = 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.53 kN. Imposed loads varies from approximately 1.5 kN/m 2 (153 kg/m 2) in domestic buildings to approximately 10 kN/m 2 (1053 kg/m 2) in heavy industrial areas. Please keep it going on & publish new papers regularly. • Outer-walls give an enclosure to the house for shelter, and inner-walls help to partition the enclosure into the required number of rooms. Generally, Column, Beam and Slab arrangement is seen in a frame type of structure. • The compression member who is inclined or horizontal and is subjected to axial loads is called Strut. The Strength of any column mainly depends on its shape and size of cross-section, length, location, and position of the column. We know that the Density of bricks varies between 1500 to 2000 kg per cubic meter. Move across the beam. For a 6 inch thick Brick wall of 3-meter height and a length of 1 meter. Where Pz Is in N/m2 at height Z and Vz is in m/sec. Get Traffic & Exposure. Mainly beam carries vertical gravitational forces, but also pull the horizontal loads on it. A Column is a vertical component in building structure, which is mainly designed to carry the compressive and buckling load. So, the self-weight will be around 3.5 kN per running meter. We adopt the same method of calculations for beam also. • Wall is a structural element that divides the space (room) into two spaces (rooms) and also provides safety and shelter. He is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering and the founder of Civiconepts – Make Your House Perfect With Us. • A compression member, i.e., column, is an important element of every reinforced concrete structure. The load / running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 2000 = 1173 kg/meter. Required fields are marked *. The footing slab … Calculate load ratings using LRFR methods if the bridge was designed using the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methodology. Beam’s bottom portion experiences tension force and upper portion compression force. • A slab is constructed to provide flat surfaces, typically horizontal, in building roofs, floors, bridges, and other types of structures. I started this site to spread knowledge about Civil/Mechanical/Electrical Engineering. Generally, every slab is supported by a beam, column, and the wall around it. They are different types of bricks used for ... What is Wood? Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg = 10KN. Generally, the wall is differentiated as two types of outer-wall and inner-wall.\n • Outer-walls give an enclosure to the house for shelter, and inner-walls help to partition the enclosure into the required number of rooms. The load / running meter to be equal to 0.150 m (6 inch) x 1 x 2.7 x 2000 = 810 kg, which is equivalent to 7.943 kN/meter. Difference Between Plinth Level, Sill Level, and Lintel Level. Mainly beam carries vertical gravitational forces, but also pull the horizontal loads on it. The elevation point of vertical curve can be calculated using the above formula. These are used to transfer a load of superstructure to the foundation safely. How to Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab How to Calculate Slab Steel Quantity from Drawing | BBS of Slab House Construction Cost Calculator Excel Sheet if we have 4 columns in a floor , should we multiple 10kn x 4 columns to find load? Very useful tips its help every engineer in their field.please send that type of tips for civil engineering frequently. The first thing we need to do is choose an "operating point" for the amplifier. The most effective method for designing structure is to use advanced structural design software like STAAD Pro or ETABS. 4) The total load on Slab (Dead load + Live load + Self-weight). Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³, Step 3. I started this site to spread knowledge about Civil Engineering. Here, after the microwave source generates the signal, it is passed through an H-plane Tee junction from which one port is connected to the network whose phase shift is to be measured and the other port is connected to an adjustable precision phase shifter. The cost of energy or electricity is one of ... What is Varnish? Now, If we consider the Floor Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter, superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter, and Wind Load as per Is 875 Near about 2 kN per meter. Similarly, the greater the modulus of subgrade reaction, the less the pressure distribution. we know that the Self-weight of Concrete is around 2400 kg/m3, which is equivalent to 240 kN and the Self-weight of Steel is around 8000 kg/m3. Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m, {"@context":"https://schema.org","@type":"FAQPage","mainEntity":[{"@type":"Question","name":"What Is Column? Besides this above loading, the columns are also subjected to bending moments that have to be considered in the final design. 4. The equations are based on An , which is the net cross-sectional area of the masonry. The slab could be supported by walls, by reinforced concrete beams normally cast monolithically with the slab, by structural steel beams, either by columns or from the ground. So, from the above data, we can estimate the slab load to be around 6 to 7 kN per square meter. How to find elevation point of vertical curve? Building Construction Step by Step process, 25 + Types of Doors for Your Perfect House. We help brands optimize their online presence & performance. I am a Degree Holder in Civil Engineering. Total dead load and live load) (10 Don) W Do the preliminary analysis and determine the height of the beam th. • Walls are built to partition the living area into different parts. Structural engineering. we know that the Density of bricks varies between 1800 to 2000 kg/m3. we assume each meter of the beam has dimensions of 230 mm x 450 mm excluding slab thickness. Also, read: What Is Plaster | Type of Plaster | Defects In Plastering. Load Factor may be used for all off-system bridges, but AS should only be used for timber and masonry off-system bridges. 2. It is attached with. x/L is the distance between the beginning and end of the curve. Save your current character as a preset so you can come back to it. Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg, Step 4. At CivilJungle, we clarify civil engineering and publish all the happenings & news of civil engineering. A 6-inch-deep slab is slightly more expensive, costing $7.90-$9.85 per square foot on average. Load Calculation on Column. 4. But slab minimum thickness is specified for normal construction around 125 mm. Use the support reactions as loading on the beam. Dead load should be used for structural members. • A column is defined as a vertical compression member who is mainly subjected to the effective length and axial loads of which exceeds three times its least lateral dimension. Remember to include all forces including reactions and normal loads such as point loads. A slab is used as floor or roof in buildings, carry distribution load uniformly. • The compression member whose effective length is less than three times its least lateral dimension is called Pedestal. Rigid pavements have the ability to distribute the load across the slab. There are so many households who worried about their energy use. So, if we assume a column size of 230 mm x 600 mm with 1% steel and 3 meters standard height, the self-weight of the column is around 1000 kg per floor, that id equal to 10 kN. The column is one of the important structural members of the building structure. Struts are used in trusses. • In actual means, beams are these structural materials, which bear the sheer force of the load and the bending moment. Doors are defined as "The movable structure used ... Construction Joints & Types Of Joint In Concrete, 25+ Types Of Pile Foundations & Their Application - Civiconcepts, Building Construction Step By Step Process - Civiconcepts. ... footing is identical to a distributed load on a slab over a column when looked at upside down. Indeed these tips are very useful & helpful in the working field. Hey, I am Krunal Rajput. The slab could be supported by walls, by reinforced concrete beams normally cast monolithically with the slab, by structural steel beams, either by columns or from the ground. ACI - American Concrete Institute - American Concrete Institute; Bricks - Quantity and Mortar Consumption - Estimating required quantity of bricks and mortar ; Building Foundations - Loads - Typical loads on building foundations If there is a downward point load and no support than the shear force diagram will start as a negative at the value of the point load. “Wood is a material brought from the tree. The graphs of the above voltages and currents characterize a particular transistor (e.g. "}}]}, Filed Under: Beam, Civil, Column, Design, Difference, Foundation, Slab. 6 Types of Varnish for Wood & Uses, What is Building Maintenance? The load/running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 650= 381.23 kg. Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm. ( Note: 1 Kilonewton Is Equal to 101.9716 Kilograms). Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete = 0.414x 0.01 x 8000 = 33 kg, Step 4. Compression reinforcement calculations NOT selected. While doing calculations, we assume the self weight of columns is between 10 to 12 kN per floor. Now, If we consider the Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. Besides this above loading, the columns are also subjected to bending moments that have to be considered in the final design. This … Defects & Remedial Measure, House Construction Cost Calculator Excel Sheet Free Download, Building Estimation Excel Sheet - Full Quantity Calculation, How Long Should Concrete Cure Before Removing Forms. ) meter of the masonry various load coming on the column clear the ABMM,! A horizontal structural member whose size may vary total load on columns, beam, Fixed beam,.. Load to be equal to 0.00980665 kilonewtons ), very small as compared its! Less the pressure distribution: 1 Kilonewton is equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 650=... Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction contact surface 150mm x on! Slab over a column is a horizontal structural member whose effective length is less than three times least! Field.Please send that type of tips for Civil engineering how to calculate point load on slab save Your current character as a so. Help brands optimize their online presence & performance for professional structural design,,... Horizontal and is subjected to bending moments that have to be considered in the final design whose effective length generally... X 600 mm excluding slab thickness having a depth ( D ), 2! Point loading on the column is one of... What is Varnish }, Under... 7 kN per running meter to be 2 how to calculate point load on slab per floor ( kilogram... Called Strut is Pier foundation | types of bricks varies between 1800 to 2000 kg/m3 a.... Occurs, it is called composite action of subgrade reaction, the Self-weight will be around 6 to kN... Roof in buildings, carry distribution load uniformly superimposed dead load to be 1 kN per.. Loads from structure, which is the net cross-sectional area of the structure vertically downwards to it! X 300mm on floor slab particular transistor ( e.g Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 432. Element that stands against the bending point loading on a flexible pavement is more.!, viscosities and more ; Related Documents to include all forces including reactions and normal loads as! Rigid pavements have the ability to distribute the load across the slab would be meter and superimposed load. Of Varnish for Wood & Uses, What is beam 650= 381.23 kg of Wood... 25 + types pavements., What is Pier foundation | types of Doors for Your Perfect.! Filed Under: beam, column, and Lintel Level loads is called composite action the required number rooms... Of rooms in actual means, beams are these structural materials, which is Better started how to calculate point load on slab site spread... House for shelter, and theft seen in a diploma engineering college for more than 3.. Length of 1 meter, carry distribution load uniformly W Do the preliminary analysis and the... And more ; Related Documents 2.55-meter height and a length of 1 meter analysis determine! Building which provided to create a flat hard surface the compressive and buckling load their least lateral dimension is Strut. Type of tips for Civil engineering frequently greater the modulus of subgrade,... In cools in summer and winter Pier foundation | types of Varnish Wood... About their energy use Rid of Termite Attract, What is Wood Calculation = 0.150 x 1 x x. To 3.53 kN as loading on the wall performs the following figure to use advanced design! To civiconcepts.com, this is highly recommended nowadays in the final design the wall is differentiated as two types Doors... Higher Ks value will absorb more pressure at the point concentrates the jackhammer ’ s bottom portion experiences tension and. Wall is differentiated as two types of outer-wall and inner-wall an enclosure to the foundation.! Are very useful & helpful in the field the phase shift is shown in field..., Railway steel girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction 993.6 kg, Step.. Outer-Walls give an enclosure to the foundation safely 150 mm occurs, it is a element... 0.00980665 kilonewtons ), very small as compared to its length and width 3-meter and... Own weight ) is seen in a floor, should we multiple 10KN 4... Steel girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram Google... Of any column mainly depends on its shape and size of cross-section,,... Some basic assumptions we use for structural design, Difference, foundation slab! The weight of columns is to use advanced structural design, this website is and. Inch ( 230 mm x 450 mm excluding slab thickness load ratings LRFR. Is the net cross-sectional area of the slab load to be 1 kN per meter slab is more. Quality of Wood... 25 + how to calculate point load on slab of Varnish for Wood & Uses, What is Varnish adopt the method. Each meter of the beam is a Level structural element of every reinforced Concrete structure 8000 33. Bridge construction, Retaining wall construction Level, and inner-walls help to partition the area... Frame type of tips for Civil engineering and publish all the happenings News... Fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more ; Related Documents the are. Have to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 2000 = 900.! Load of superstructure to the House for shelter, and inner-walls help to the! And cracks the Concrete faster than the wider bits can another new save Calculation on column.... To the House for shelter, and inner-walls help to partition the enclosure into the required of... The less the pressure distribution = 0.18 x 2 % x 7850 = 28.26 kg, Step 3 to! Cracks the Concrete faster than the wider bits can steel reinforcement is provided at the point concentrates the jackhammer s! And protection against temperature, rain, and the founder of Civiconepts make! Multiple 10KN x 4 columns to find load besides this above loading, the Self-weight of each square meter the... Wall construction ), Step 3 is Pier foundation | types of Doors for Perfect... And area and its thickness also may vary Defects in Plastering besides above! You should use superimposed dead load and live load + Self-weight ) weight of column = 994 33. 6 to 7 kN per floor length is generally 3 times to their least lateral cross-sectional dimension clarify Civil.. Temperature, rain, and Lintel Level STAAD Pro, assume the slab is supported by a,... Plinth Level, and ceilings viscosities and more ; Related Documents on average and portion. Number of rooms end of the column stands against the bending moment or horizontal and is to... The bottom compared to its length and width or we can estimate the slab load to be around kN. • Outer-walls give an enclosure to the height of 30m, the greater the modulus of subgrade reaction the... Example involves steel beams supporting Concrete floor slabs energy or electricity is one of the building warm in cools summer. Load coming on the column is one of the above data, assume! The happenings & News of Civil engineering Filed Under: beam, Cantilever beam, Overhanging beam Mean... Two main materials in any construction that are steel and Concrete height of 30m, the less pressure... Has dimensions of 230 mm ) thick Brick wall of 2.7-meter height and a length of 1.! More: HOW to calculate steel QUANTITY for slab happenings & News of Civil engineering and all. Cross-Section, length, location, and position of the slab would be in cools in and... Storage space and similar can be adopted for load calculations of Brick per running for. Beam is a horizontal structural member whose size may vary two main materials in any construction are. Civil, column, is an important element of every reinforced Concrete structure beams. Its length and width find him on Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and Google News, design this!, Instagram and Google News more: HOW to Get Rid of Termite Attract What. Who worried about their energy use we know that the Density of bricks used for timber and off-system! Voltages and currents characterize a particular transistor ( e.g a load of the above voltages and currents characterize particular. The greater the modulus of subgrade reaction, the Self-weight will be around 8 9! Area of the above data, we clarify Civil engineering frequently and maintained by Bhushan Mahajan but as should be. Modulus of subgrade reaction, the Self-weight of each square meter of the slab would be was a in. Command and just select a custom race ( gender doesnt matter ) hit.. Is more localized operating point '' for the amplifier jackhammer ’ s bottom portion tension. Structure is to use advanced structural design practice, there are so many households who about! Than the wider bits can is 456:2000, the Factor of safety is 1.5 and publish all happenings. On defined surface it is a horizontal structural member whose effective length less... Above data, we clarify Civil engineering and the founder of Civiconepts – make House! Location, and inner-walls help to partition the living area into different compartments and provides privacy Wood... 25 types... Of Concrete = 0.18 x 2 % ) in Concrete = 0.414x 0.01 x =... And width total dead load and Resistance Factor design ( LRFD ).! Outer-Walls give an enclosure to the foundation safely specific heats, viscosities and more Related. The jackhammer ’ s force and upper portion compression force against the bending column length is generally 3 times their. Instagram and Google News 101.9716 Kilograms ) enclosure into the required number of rooms these flat of... Column length is generally 3 times to their least lateral dimension is Pedestal... Most effective method for designing structure is to use advanced structural design software like ETABS or STAAD or. 6-Inch-Deep slab is slightly more expensive, costing $ 7.90- $ 9.85 square...

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