I was all ready to say yes to the offer, but Steve didn't ask; he just left the room. The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge on the Run is a film based on Nickelodeon's hit TV show SpongeBob SquarePants. Some of these pieces were to be adapted into commercial products. Kenny voices SpongeBob and a number of other characters, including SpongeBob's pet snail Gary and the French Narrator. REFANB Interview: Carolyn Lawrence, A.K.A. As of the ninth season, former writers and storyboard directors Vincent Waller and Marc Ceccarelli act as showrunners. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Cartoon Spongebob Finger Family Spongebob Squarepants Cartoon Animation Nursery Rhymes For Children.  He added, "I wrote the shows to where they felt right".. , Philippe Dauman, the president and CEO of Viacom, contradicted that notion, saying: "We are getting nice revenues through these subscription VOD deals", adding Netflix only has "some library content" on its service. Instead of continuing his education with a traditional art program, Hillenburg chose to study experimental animation at the California Institute of the Arts.  Weekly viewership of the series had reached around fifteen million, at least five million of whom were adults. Carr has described the selections for SpongeBob SquarePants as being "more over-the-top" than those for Rocko's Modern Life. The Big One".  A month later, Marlou Breuls presented the SpongeBob SquarePants-themed "Icon Collection" during List of fashion events#Netherlands|Amsterdam Fashion Week. Drymon has identified this period as having begun in 1996, shortly after the end of Rocko's Modern Life.  Initially, Hillenburg wanted to use the name SpongeBoy—with no last name—and the series was to have been called SpongeBoy Ahoy!  As of 2017, voicing Mrs. Hillenburg first sought out Drymon's storyboard partner, Mark O'Hare—but he had just created the soon-to-be syndicated comic strip, Citizen Dog. Nickelodeon is set to kick off a year-long celebration in honor of the 10th anniversary of SpongeBob SquarePants. He was 59. Recurring guest voices include Ernest Borgnine, who voiced Mermaid Man from 1999 until his death in 2012; Tim Conway, who voiced Barnacle Boy from 1999 to until his death in 2019; Brian Doyle-Murray as the Flying Dutchman; and Marion Ross as Grandma SquarePants. The best GIFs are on GIPHY.  This theme includes ukulele music at Hillenburg's request. , The writing staff often used their personal experiences as inspiration for the storylines of the series' episodes. This is the man responsible for one of the most iconic cartoons of the last 20 years, SpongeBob SquarePants. He was born Yoshito Yasumi in Tokyo, a name he shares with both his grandfathers. , Martin Olson, one of the writers for Rocko's Modern Life, read The Intertidal Zone and encouraged Hillenburg to create a television series with a similar concept. Before this could materialize, he attended an animation festival, which inspired him to make a slight change in course.  It became the network's series with the most episodes during its eighth season, surpassing the 172 episodes of Rugrats. Created by Marc Ceccarelli, Vincent Waller. Browse more videos.  Nickelodeon reduced its exposure on television. SpongeBob is a kid camper who spends his summer catching jellyfish, building camp-fires, and swimming in Lake Yuckymuck. " Rocko's Modern Life also used music from this library. The CG-animated series (13 episodes) is the first original spinoff of Nickelodeon’s iconic hit show SpongeBob SquarePants. The US-based writer and animator, known for his work on SpongeBob … Nickelodeon first broadcast SpongeBob SquarePants on May 1, 1999 as part of a special preview following the telecast of the 1999 Kids’ Choice Awards.  Once the film was finalized and the third season finished, Hillenburg resigned as the series' showrunner. When Hillenburg created SpongeBob SquarePants, he approached Kenny to voice the main character. It was Hillenburg's decision to adopt this approach. , On February 11, 2019, Nickelodeon announced it would recognize the twentieth anniversary of SpongeBob SquarePants with a series of celebrations known as the "Best Year Ever". SpongeBob SquarePants premiered in 1999. " Once Hillenburg had given it some thought and decided to bring Drymon on as creative director, the two began meeting at Hillenburg's house several times a week to develop the series. , A cover of the song by Avril Lavigne can be found on The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie soundtrack. Murray was impressed by the style of the film and offered Hillenburg a job. Episodes are finished in California, where they are edited and have music added. Kamp Koral will be produced using computer animation rather than the digital ink and paint animation used for SpongeBob SquarePants.  In determining the new character's behavior, Hillenburg drew inspiration from innocent, childlike figures that he enjoyed, such as Charlie Chaplin, Laurel and Hardy, Jerry Lewis, and Pee-wee Herman. ", Almost every episode is divided into two 11-minute segments. The series went on hiatus in 2002, after Hillenburg halted production to work on The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie.  Brown decided to use a "piratey" voice for the character with "a little Scottish brogue" after hearing Hillenburg's description of his boss.  In his stead, Pete Burns was brought in for the job. SpongeBob SquarePants was credited with helping Nickelodeon take the "Saturday-morning ratings crown" for the fourth straight season in 2001. Kids first got to fall in love with the ever-bubbly and porous SpongeBob SquarePants back when the Stephen Hillenberg-created show launched on Nickelodeon the summer of ’99. People who were young children when it started 10 years ago are still watching it and digging it and think it's funny. The Mad Hatter Smiles In Alice In Wonderland Gif . This article documents the history and development of SpongeBob SquarePants.  Critically acclaimed duo Patrick Creadon and Christine O'Malley created the film as a followup to I.O.U.S.A.—a documentary on America's financial situation. Her friend said to Grillo that Lawrence had "an interesting voice".  Throughout its run, the series' production has been handled domestically at Nickelodeon Animation Studio in Burbank, California. The setup was described by Nickelodeon executive Eric Coleman as "pretty amazing". You know, we could have Bruce Willis do this voice.' SpongeBob SquarePants animator Tuck Tucker has died at the age of 59, his family have confirmed. He said to Nickelodeon executives, "That's it—I don't want to hear anybody else do the voice. ", In 2012, however, it was reported that the series' ratings were declining. In the first quarter of 2012, the network cut back on the number of episodes it aired by 16% compared to a year earlier. RELATED: SpongeBob SquarePants: Every Season So Far, Ranked The second one plods its way into a time travel narrative … He and Patrick try everything from constructing a plane to tying SpongeBob to a kite./Deep within the Nickelodeon animation studio, a never before seen episode of SpongeBob SquarePants has been discovered.  That summer, Nike, Inc.|Nike, in collaboration with Kyrie Irving, released a SpongeBob SquarePants series of shoes, accessories, and apparel.  Another cover by the Violent Femmes aired on Nickelodeon as a promotion when the series moved to prime time. Derek Drymon, who served as creative director for the first three seasons, has said that Hillenburg wanted to surround himself with a "team of young and hungry people".  The end of the episode, where Mr. Krabs uses even more profanity than SpongeBob and Patrick, was inspired "by the fact that my [Drymon's] mother has a sailor mouth herself". Puff requires less preparation than her performances in person. , Hill contributed scripts for several first-season episodes (including the pilot) and was offered the role of story editor, but turned it down—he would go on to pursue a career as a family film director. and save your own animated template using the GIF Maker. There's no substitute for the immediacy of drawing on a piece of paper, of course, but digital nautical nonsense is still pretty fun". She was in Los Feliz, Los Angeles, with a friend who knew SpongeBob SquarePants casting director Donna Grillo. 6 years ago | 114 views. Wednesday is recording day, the same schedule followed by the crew since 1999. SpongeBob SquarePants features the voices of Tom Kenny, Bill Fagerbakke, Rodger Bumpass, Clancy Brown, Doug Lawrence, Jill Talley, Carolyn Lawrence, Mary Jo Catlett, and Lori Alan. With Rodger Bumpass, Carolyn Lawrence, Mr. Lawrence, Mary Jo Catlett. SpongeBob SquarePants Through The Decades/ Art challenge How I draw Evolution Spongebob Squarepants Through The Decades ! Dubbed "Painty the Pirate", according to Tom Kenny, Hillenburg found it in a thrift shop "years ago". , Approximately 50 people work together to animate and produce an episode of SpongeBob SquarePants.  Hillenburg explained, "Drymon had a secret box [as a kid] and started telling us about it. That's the loving cup for me. Grillo invited her to audition and she got the role. , When the film was completed, Hillenburg intended it to be the series finale, "so [the show] wouldn't jump the shark."  Brookshier has likened this process to how cartoons were made "in the early days of animation. The plotting in the second and third movies is much looser.  On November 26, 2018, at the age of 57, Hillenburg died from complications from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which had been diagnosed in March 2017. This makes it the fifth-longest running animated television series. With Lori Alan, Dee Bradley Baker, Clancy Brown, Rodger Bumpass.  Hillenburg considered Tibbitt one of his favorite members of the show's crew, and "totally trusted him". Twenty-two years … At that point, Hillenburg had not even considered creating his own series.  By the end of 2001 SpongeBob SquarePants boasted the highest ratings for any children's series, on all of television. Tuck Tucker, a veteran animator and storyboard director known for his work on “Hey Arnold!” and “SpongeBob SquarePants,” died on Dec. 22.  Mr. Lawrence recalls that Nickelodeon executives told Hillenburg, "'we could stunt-cast this. " The network insisted on auditioning more actors, but Hillenburg turned them down; in the words of Tom Kenny, "one of the advantages of having a strong creator is that the creator can say, 'No, I like that—I don't care about celebrities.  However, the Nickelodeon legal department discovered—after voice acting had been completed for the original seven-minute pilot episode—that the name "SpongeBoy" was already in use for a mop product.  Hillenburg joined the series as a director and later, during the fourth season, he took on the roles of producer and creative director. Spongebob Squarepants: Creature From The Krusty Krab released in 2006 for Nintendo GameCube, DS, GameBoy Advance, Wii, PlayStation 2, and PC.  Patrick Pinney voices Painty the Pirate, singing the theme song as the character. Please Subscribe ,Like and Share! Telling the SpongeBob story feels like the perfect fit.  In a statement, Brown Johnson, Nickelodeon's animation president said, "SpongeBob's success in reaching over 200 episodes is a testament to creator Stephen Hillenburg's vision, comedic sensibility and his dynamic, lovable characters. 12 Season 12 The 12th season of SpongeBob SquarePants is the current season, which aired …  In honor of the anniversary, Pantone created color shades known as "SpongeBob SquarePants Yellow" and "Patrick Star Pink", to be used by Nickelodeon's licensing partners. "; Johnny Depp as the surf guru, Jack Kahuna Laguna, in "SpongeBob SquarePants vs. , Voice recording sessions always include a full cast of actors, which Kenny describes as "getting more unusual". " On Friday, July 17, Nickelodeon marked the official anniversary of the series, with a 50-hour television marathon titled "The Ultimate SpongeBob SpongeBash Weekend".  Being a Chicago native, she uses a Midwestern accent for the character.  Kenny performed audio tests as SpongeBob during these sessions, while Hillenburg voice acted the other characters.  Kenny has called him "one of SpongeBob's early graphics mentors". SpongeBob Makes His Debut. (rating of Nickelodeon's cartoon, Stephen Hillenburg created the undersea world of SpongeBob. While working on the pilot episode of SpongeBob, Hillenburg invited him to audition for all the characters. The finished animation has been created overseas at Rough Draft Studios in South Korea.  As a result, the group was asked to create an episode animated entirely in stop-motion in 2011.  When Hillenburg heard Kenny perform the voice, he knew immediately he wanted it for his character. He had considered a career change before Hillenburg offered him the job.  Fagerbakke recalled that during this audition, "Hillenburg actually played for me a portion of Tom [Kenny]'s performance [as SpongeBob], and they were looking for a counterpoint. It was a pretty important title as it happened to be the first Spongebob Squarepants video game to release in Japan. She aimed to make it invoke the sound of whales’ low vocalizations while also sounding "spoiled and lovable. The festivities will include production of a SpongeBob …  Sequences involving Bubbles included a blend of stop motion and traditional animation.  However, seasons five through eight of SpongeBob are still available to stream on Netflix in Canada. At this time, The Fairly OddParents had a 6.2 rating and nearly 2.5 million child viewers, while SpongeBob SquarePants had a 6.0 rating and 2.4 million child viewers aged two to eleven.  Lori Alan voices Pearl Krabs.  Casting supervisor Jennie Monica Hammond said, "I loved Wednesdays". , Until his death in 2018, Hillenburg had served as the executive producer over the course of the series' entire history and functioned as its showrunner from its debut in 1999 until 2004. However, he realized that if he ever did, this would be the best approach. Nickelodeon. They eagerly await new episodes.  He added, "There is nothing that we have seen that points to SpongeBob as a problem. It's how the stuff we like was recorded". Hillenburg explained: "[I] never really wanted to deliberately try to write a half-hour show". He's a star, Being Patrick Star: Toonzone Interviews Bill Fagerbakke on, "Transformers:Animated"/"Spongebob Squarepants"/"Coach" – Bill Fagerbakke (2008). , Jennings was also instrumental in SpongeBob's genesis. He wanted these scores to be composed by unknowns, and a group of twelve was assembled. In this movie, SpongeBob and Patrick go on a rescue mission to save Gary, who's been snailnapped by King Poseidon and taken to the Lost City of Atlantic City1. 7. We wanted to make fun of him and use it. , Nickelodeon continued celebrating the anniversary through the rest of the year.  Kenny said, "That's another thing that's given SpongeBob its special feel. Report. The episode, which premiered on TV on April 17, 2010, features Johnny Depp a…  The series had gained a significant adult audience by that point—nearly 40 percent of its 2.2 million viewers were aged 18 to 34. The US-based writer and animator, known for his work on SpongeBob … After graduating in 1984, he joined the Ocean Institute, an organization in Dana Point, California, dedicated to educating the public about marine science and maritime history. 1999 – SpongeBob SquarePants, The Iron Giant, Family Guy, Futurama, South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, My Neighbours the Yamadas, Tarzan (final Disney Renaissance film), Toy Story 2, Digimon: Digital Monsters, Redwall, Happy Tree Friends, Ed, Edd 'n Eddy, Batman Beyond, Home Movies, Oggy and the Cockroaches, Olive the Other Reindeer, Robbie the Reindeer, Courage the Cowardly Dog, Rocket Power, …  He then considered modeling the character after a kitchen sponge and realized this idea would match the character's square personality perfectly. The game was mostly a platformer but featured gameplay elements that had players racing, rail shooting, and adventuring as … (The Orange County Register), Grown-ups embrace a wacky, square sponge; There's just something about this sweet kids' cartoon that's attracting an adult audience.  The comic starred various anthropomorphic sea lifeforms, many of which would evolve into SpongeBob SquarePants characters. Nickelodeon Taps Patrick Creadon and Christine O'Malley to Produce First-Ever SpongeBob... https://web.archive.org/web/20140825100641/https://www.reuters.com/article/2009/01/19/idUS145869%2B19-Jan-2009%2BPRN20090119, SpongeBob SquarePants Meets Johnny Depp – TV News at IGN, Nickelodeon Celebrates 10 Years of Pop Culture Icon, Ultimate SpongeBob SpongeBash Weekend – Raving Toy Maniac – The Latest News and Pictures from the World of Toys, SpongeBob SquarePants — To SquarePants or Not to SquarePants Debuts in July's 100-ep Marathon, Then on DVD, SpongeBob SquarePants – 'First 100 Episodes' 5-Season DVD Set Arrives with New Extras this Autumn, SpongeBob SquarePants — The First 100 Episodes (Seasons 1–5), SpongeBob SquarePants: The First 100 Episodes DVD Review, Ricky Gervais, Will Ferrell and Robin Williams pay tribute to, 'SpongeBob Squarepants' to celebrate 20 years with the 'Best Year Ever' and a new movie, SpongeBob SquarePants Spinoffs in the Works From Nickelodeon, SpongeBob gets artsy for 20th anniversary, Nickelodeon and The Pantone Color Institute Launch SpongeBob Yellow and Patrick Star Pink in Commemoration of SpongeBob’s 20th Anniversary, Behind the Business of 'SpongeBob's Big Birthday Blowout', Nickelodeon Celebrates 20 Years of 'SpongeBob SquarePants' with "Best Year Ever", Cynthia Rowley Creates SpongeBob SquarePants Birthday Wetsuit, How Kanye West changed sneaker culture: Nike, Adidas don't need athletes to sell sports shoes now they’ve got celebrities, SpongeBob Got A Haute Couture Makeover At Amsterdam Fashion Week, This Edgy Fashion Collection Is Inspired by SpongeBob SquarePants, Kyrie Irving, Nike Go Under the Sea with SpongeBob, HipDot launches 'SpongeBob Squarepants' cosmetics collection, A SpongeBob SquarePants Makeup Collection Is Here - and It’s Surprisingly Wearable, 'SpongeBob' goes live-action to celebrate 'Best Year Ever' 20th anniversary, 'SpongeBob SquarePants' 20th Anniversary To Pop Confetti At San Diego Comic-Con, Celebrate SpongeBob with Nick's 'Best 200 Episodes Ever' 30-Disc Set, Nicklodeon. Everybody's in the same room, doing it old radio-show style. This is the guy! I mean, many of my cohorts—don't like working on them, but I find them useful. Local fans can't get enough of SpongeBob, 'SpongeBob' rises from sea to peak of ratings: Nickelodeon show top-rated among kids aged 2 to 11, 'Oddparents is Soaking Up Popularity of 'Spongebob', 'Fairly Odd' number puts 'SpongeBob' in second, Sorry, SpongeBob: Disney Channel Knocks Nick From Top Ratings Perch, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303990604577370510139597158, Analyst: Nickelodeon Might Be in Danger of Being Dropped by Some TV Distributors, http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/nickelodeon-viacom-336290, Viacom CEO Defends Nickelodeon's Netflix Deal Again, http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/viacom-ceo-philippe-dauman-defends-nickelodeons-netflix-ratings-319904, Viacom CEO: Netflix Content Is Not Hurting Nickelodeon Ratings, http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/viacom-ceo-netflix-content-not-hurting-nickelodeon-ratings-philippe-dauman-286605, Viacom and Netflix to Scale Down SVOD Deal, https://variety.com/2013/digital/news/viacom-and-netflix-to-scale-down-svod-deal-1200407086/, Adios, Dora: Netflix is starting to take Viacom shows offline, Dora, SpongeBob Swap Sides in Fickle Web-Video World, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324423904578525044270830934, "Amazon Inks Streaming Deal for Viacom Shows Like Dora, SpongeBob", https://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2419901,00.asp, Amazon writes biggest streaming video check for Dora, SpongeBob, http://www.denverpost.com/technology/ci_23385278/amazon-writes-biggest-streaming-video-check-dora-spongebob, Amazon swipes SpongeBob from Netflix in most expensive deal yet, 'SpongeBob SquarePants' one of Nickelodeon's longest-running shows after nearly a decade, https://web.archive.org/web/20130121072606/http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/tv-movies/spongebob-squarepants-nickelodeon-longest-running-shows-decade-article-1.435311, 'SpongeBob SquarePants' buckles up for ninth season, "SpongeBob SquarePants" renewed for ninth season, https://www.reuters.com/article/2011/01/03/us-spongebob-idUSTRE7023X520110103, https://variety.com/2011/tv/news/spongebob-receives-ninth-season-pickup-1118029670/, SpongeBob SquarePants Renewed for Ninth Season, Nickelodeon's 'SpongeBob SquarePants' Renewed for Ninth Season, http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/nickelodeons-spongebob-squarepants-renewed-ninth-67737, https://nickelodeon.fandom.com/wiki/History_of_SpongeBob_SquarePants?oldid=300348. At the same time when Hillenburg, Derek Drymon and Tim Hill were writing the pilot "Help Wanted", Hillenburg was also conducting auditions to find voices for the characters. , While working as a staff artist at the Ocean Institute, Hillenburg entertained plans to return eventually to college for a master's degree in art. '" Jill Talley, Tom Kenny's wife, voices Karen Plankton.  Kevin Kay and Hecht had to step outside because they were "exhausted from laughing", which worried the cartoonists.  He forgot how to perform the voice initially and did not intend to use it afterward. The Big One".  In the ninth season, its 26 episodes brought the number of episodes produced to 204. He is currently an animation director for the hit cartoon series, “SpongeBob SquarePants.” He’s worked on many of Nickelodeon’s popular shows, including “The Rugrats” and “Rocko’s Modern Life.” He has worked on “SpongeBob” for the past 12 years. , Since 2004, the SpongeBob crew has periodically collaborated with the LA-based animation studio Screen Novelties to create stop-motion sequences for special episodes. Over the years, SpongeBob SquarePants has had various voice actors, changes in direction, and animation adaptions, but which season reigns supreme? Premiering in 1999, the iconic show is nearing a 20-year run and is still producing episodes through 2019.. Although he no longer had a direct role in the series' production, he maintained an advisory role and reviewed each episode. The series now joins the club of contemporary classic Nicktoons that have hit this benchmark, so we're incredibly proud.". Jacqueline Laurean Yates (July 18, 2019). The group went on to provide most of the music for later seasons, although Carr still draws from the Associated Production Music Library, as well as another library that he founded himself—Animation Music Inc., Nickelodeon began celebrating the series' 10th anniversary on January 18, 2009, with a live cast reading of the episode "SpongeBob vs. The collections received a standard nationwide release on August 27.  Electronic sound effects are underlaid by the series' audio engineers to create a robotic sound when she speaks.  Two years later, the series had firmly established itself as Nickelodeon's second highest-rated children's program, after Rugrats.  Tom Kenny, who is normally uninvolved in the writing process, contributed to the episode's plot; he said in 2012 that he and Nickelodeon "wanted to do something just like those old school, stop-motion Rankin-Bass holiday specials... which I watched over and over again when I was a kid growing up in Syracuse. , In an interview, Cyma Zarghami, then-president of Nickelodeon, said, "their [Nickelodeon executives'] immediate reaction was to see it again, both because they liked it and it was unlike anything they'd ever seen before".  For example, the episode "Sailor Mouth", where SpongeBob and Patrick learn profanity, was inspired by creative director Derek Drymon's experience as a child of getting into trouble for using the f-word in front of his mother. The reading—a first for the series—was held at that year's Sundance Film Festival.  Notable guests who have provided vocal cameo appearances include David Bowie as Lord Royal Highness in "Atlantis SquarePantis"; John Goodman as the voice of Santa in "It's a SpongeBob Christmas!  After working with Hillenburg on Rocko's Modern Life, he struggled to find a new job in his field. Puff's voice. Burns hailed from Chicago and had never met any of the principal players on SpongeBob before joining the team.  The "Best Year Ever" was recognized on Amazon Prime Day with an exclusive early release of SpongeBob SquarePants: The Best 200 Episodes Ever!, a 30-disc DVD compilation of two box sets, SpongeBob SquarePants: The First 100 Episodes and SpongeBob SquarePants: The Next 100 Episodes. According to Brown, his Mr. Krabs voice was mostly improvised during his audition and it was not challenging for him to find the correct voice. You can further customize the font in the More Options section, and also add additional text boxes.  In an interview, Cyma Zarghami, then-general manager and executive vice president of Nickelodeon, said, "Are we banking on the fact that Fairly OddParents will be the next SpongeBob? fun.  The "Best Year Ever" continued into 2020 culminating with the May 22 release of The SpongeBob Movie: It's a Wonderful Sponge. Lawrence called improvisation his "favorite part of the voice over" in 2009. Nothing turned up. It is the third SpongeBob SquarePants film in the franchise20, set for release on February, 2021 on premium video-on-demand … As a result, Hillenburg decided to focus on a single main character: the "weirdest" sea creature he could think of. Fagerbakke voices Patrick Star and other miscellaneous characters.  Since other voices had been found for the main cast already, Lawrence began by voicing a variety of minor characters. "SquarePants" was chosen as a family name after Kenny saw a picture of the character and remarked, "Boy, look at this sponge in square pants, thinking he can get a job in a fast food place." It held an average national Nielsen rating of 4.9 among children aged two through eleven, denoting 1.9 million viewers. If you grew up with cable, you probably turned on the TV at some point and watched “SpongeBob SquarePants” on Nickelodeon. A two-page outline is then assigned to a team of storyboard directors, who produce a complete rough draft of the storyboard. He said the character "became a very interesting character to do" because of "his sarcasm, and then his frustration, and then his apoplexy, and so he became a wide spectrum of emotions". , The series' music editor and main composer is Nicolas Carr. Series' background designer Kenny Pittenger said, "The only real difference between the way we draw now and the way we drew then is that we abandoned pencil and paper during the fifth season".